One Cogon grass, cotton wool grass, silver spike, sword grass, ialang, lusanke (Luganda), mtimbi (Kiswahili), ol'ungu (Maasai), Pantropical - almost certainly found in all countries in the humid tropics. Not listed as a noxious weed by the state or governments in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. Deep plowing may be effective in the removal of cogongrass if the plow reaches up to 6 i… Millions of hectares of farmland are abandoned because of I. cylindrica grass in West and Central Africa each year. In southern climates, flowering occurs intermittently year-round. Retrieved from http://www.tsusinvasives.org/home/database/imperata-cylindrica, Salt Lake County Health Department The Mississippi Department of Agriculture and Commerce has assembled a task force of scientists, educators, government officials and agricultural leaders to recommend a comprehensive survey and control program for cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) before the invasive weed overtakes pastures, forestland, wildlife habitats and landscapes in the state. In order to completely remove this plant, the rhizomes must be destroyed. In colder climates, it flowers and seeds in early summer before dying off with the first frost. However, they aren’t going to clean up an infested field. The leaves are about 2 cm wide near the base of the plant and narrow to a sharp point at the top; the margins are finely toothed and are embedded with sharp silica crystals. - 4 ft. 0 in. Accessed March 2011. currently no approved biocontrol agents for Cogongrass in the US, although This fact sheet is adapted from The Environmental Weeds of Australia by Sheldon Navie and Steve Adkins, Centre for Biological Information Technology, University of Queensland. Disclaimer | )is a warm-season perennial grass species found throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world (Hubbard 1944). The main vein is a lighter colour than the rest of the leaf and tends to be nearer to one side of the leaf. Individual leaf blades are flat and serrated, with an off-center prominent white midrib (Figure 2). and Miller, S.E. Comment about this page? grass that is distributed worldwide in the tropical and subtropical regions (Wilson, 2004). Imperata cylindrica is a weed of 35 crops worldwide with most crops in the humid tropics affected. In cultivated ornamental versions, leaves are a deep red color. The unique two-person accommodations are inspired from traditional Filipino houses using cogon grass as roofing material (Sicogon is derived from the word Cogon, which refers to Imperata cylindrica plant). Need more information? The precise management measures adopted for any plant invasion will depend upon factors such as the terrain, the cost and availability of labour, the severity of the infestation and the presence of other invasive species. Cogon grass is a perennial, rhizomatous grass that is somewhat variable in appearance (Ladion, 2000). Studies on Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. obs.) The plant belon gs to t he family Poaceae. The flowers and the roots are antibacterial, diuretic, febrifuge, sialagogue, styptic and tonic.. (eds) (1999). Nonnative invasive plants of Xyleborus glabratus was first detected in 2002 and is one of the 10 ambrosia beetle species in t… The grass blades tend to be yellow to green in color (Figure 1). Imperata arundinacea Cirollo; Lagurus cylindricusL. (2010, August 21). Imperata cylindrica (satintail). In the United States, it is naturalized in Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississip… Details on possible control methods for I. cylindrica are available in the CABI Invasive Species Compendium. Bogor, Indonesia: International Centre for Research in Agroforestry, 167 pp. These are dispersed by wind over long distances. Some components of an integrated management approach are introduced below. It is also thought to negatively impact upon biodiversity as it is an inferior forage grass. control methods (pulling, cultivation, etc.) further treatments may be needed to kill the rhizomatous root mat. biodiversity. - 4 ft. 0 in. Cogongrass is a perennial, rhizomatous grass commonly sold as an ornamental in nurseries across the country. Typically, ambrosia beetles are considered beneficial because they accelerate the decay of dead trees, which is important for nutrient cycling in healthy forests. Whole Plant Traits: Plant Type: Ornamental Grasses and Sedges Weed Habit/Form: Clumping Erect Spreading Growth Rate: Rapid Maintenance: High; Cultural Conditions: Light: In cooler climates, mid-May to June. Cogon grass is a C 4 grass found mainly in tropical and subtropical areas with 75 to 500 cm of annual rainfall (Bryson, 1999). Invasive Species Database. GRAMA | Ambrosia beetles are wood-degrading insects which live in nutritional symbiosis with ambrosia fungi. Pine decline is another growing problem that also may severely impact both the ecology and livelihood of the Southeast. infestations (home gardens, etc.). Imperata Management for Smallholders. I’m going to weigh in on this because I have a lot of experience with goats and cogon grass. Retrieved from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=16, Invasive Cogon Grass has also infested a large part of Alabama and portions of other southern states. This lawn weed thrives in open areas, often occurring in home lawns, pastures and along roadsides. Native to Southeast Asia, cogongrass is an aggressive invasive plant that that has spread to all continents except Antarctica (MacDonald 2004) and is considered among the worst problematic weeds on a global scale (Holm et al. use. treatment with Glyphosate herbicides can control leaf growth, but up to 2 BioNET-EAFRINET Regional Coordinator: [email protected], Introduced, naturalised or invasive in East Africa. Seed heads range from 2 to 8 inches in length a… In this study, cogon grass was made as a material in paper making. In Malaysia, I. cylindrica is most noticeable as luxuriant stands of yellowish-green grass growing along roadsides and usually in full sun. Today, cogon grass has been found in over 73 countries (MacDonald, 2004). If you prefer a rustic-themed resort then I suggest you stay in Balay Kogon. [PDF file]. Cogongrass can invade pastures, natural or planted forests, riparian areas, highway rights-of-way, urban areas, and wetlands. Width: 2 ft. 0 in. Flowers: Flowers are silvery colored cylinders 2-8 inches long. and Eupatorium odoratum L. Weed Research Project R 2552, 1971-1973. In spring or summer, the plants produce fluffy white seed heads. cylindrica (L.) Beauv. IRRI/NRI (1996) have produced a guide to the management of I. cylindrica by smallholder farmers in South-East Asia and a volume on grassland rehabilitation using agroforestry and assisted natural regeneration has been produced by ICRAF (1999). Technical Report, Agricultural Research Council Weed Research Organization, No. Lyons, E.E. and Uganda (Lyons and Miller 1999). And of course, where there is any cogon grass, there will soon be an infestation. Flowering Time:  Flowering time differs based on local climate. (Imperata cylindrica) invasions in the US: Mechanisms, impacts, and threats to Life Cycle. Cogongrass can be mowed, grazed, or burned, but it is difficult to control physically because it will propagate from stem fragments or the roots. It also spreads by rhizomes (root-like stems) which can be transported by tilling equipment and in soil transport. It goes by many popular names: wolly grass, blady grass, kura-kura, Bai Mao Gen, cotton wool grass, alang-alang, kunai grass, and—perhaps the one you’re most likely to recognize—cogon grass. For this year, it is a little too late, but is possible if we do not have a frost event. several species of fungi are currently under investigation for possible future It is very tolerant of soil type and of wide variations in soil fertility, soil moisture and light conditions. ICRAF (1999). Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. & Flory, L. (2015, January). Biological Control of Cogongrass: Progress and Perspectives James P. Cuda1, William A. Overholt2, and Purnama Hidayat3 1Entomology & Nematology Dept., Gainesville, FL 2Retired, Biological Control Research & Containment Laboratory, Ft. Pierce, FL 3Bogor Agricultural University, West Java, Indonesia IFAS-FTGA Great CEU Roundup, McCarty GOO1, 25 July 2018 This activity was undertaken as part of the BioNET-EAFRINET UVIMA Project (Taxonomy for Development in East Africa). Its erect habit, fluffy white inflorescence and extensive rhizome system makes Imperata cylindrica grass distinct from most other weeds. Mechanical Cogon grass reproduces asexually by rhizomes and sexually by seeds (Hubbard et al., 1944). Privacy Statement |. This document provides a plan for cogongrass management in perennial grass pastures, as well … are effective only on small Has a weak and shallow root system.Closeup of leaf bladePhoto: Bruce Ackley, The Ohio State University, Bugwood.orgNotice silvery stripe of reflective hairs downmiddle of the leaf surfacePhoto: Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org Roots are up to 1.2 m deep, but 0.4 m is typical in sandy soil. Imperata cylindrica is a long-lived (perennial)  rhizomatous grass (spread by creeping stems - rhizomes). Imperata cylindrica is a prolific seed producer with one plant capable of producing up to 3000 seeds. As Imperata cylindrica is so widespread this is unlikely to be possible in many instances. Dickens, R. and Moore, G.M. Ivens GW, 1975. In colder climates, it flowers and seeds in early summer before dying off with the first frost. Species profile: Imperata cylindrica. Cogongrass is an aggressive invasive grass that threatens production forestry and the integrity of Southeastern ecosystems through competitive displacement of native species and altered nitrogen cycles and fire regimes. CABI Invasive Species Compendium online data sheet. The seed head (Figure 3) is fluffy, white, and plume-like. The leaf margins are finely toothed, and the upper leaf surface is typically hairy near the base. Retrieved from https://www.fs.fed.us/invasivespecies/speciesprofiles/documents/cogon-grass.pdf View PDF, Texas Bermuda grass is also the most common grass … Control is generally best applied to the least infested areas before dense infestations are tackled. Imperata cylindrica is invasive in parts of Kenya and Tanzania (A.B.R. Cogon grass grows 0.6–3 metres (2–10 feet) tall and has roots that can reach more than 1 metre (3.3 feet) long. CABI Publishing 2011. www.cabi.org/ISC. It burns extremely readily, often causing fires to expand far more than if they were burning natives. Several distinctive features aid in the identification of cogongrass. Phone: (385) 468-4100, TTY | Smutgrass can be found throughout much of the southeastern and western United States. The concentration of sugar varies greatly during the life cycle but is greatest when the cane is flowering, so this is when the harvest typically occurs. Cogongrass is an aggressive perennial grass that is distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. If prevention is no longer possible, it is best to treat the weed infestations when they are small to prevent them from establishing (early detection and rapid response). (1974). 1977). We have a fact sheet available that can be found here. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2351989414000626, Global Life Cycles of Rice Field Weeds and their Management in Malaysia. Consistent follow-up work is required for sustainable management. General Information   Imperata cylindrica may be confused with I. brasiliensis (Brazilian satintail). Although Imperata cylindrica can have leaf blades of up to 1.5 m tall in conditions of good soil moisture and fertility (Holm et al. Cogongrass control can be effective against Cogongrass with multiple treatments. Witt pers. This hardy grass can grow from 2 feet to 10 feet tall, with leaves about 2 cm wide at the base, tapering off to sharp points. Flowering typically occurs in spring or after disturbance of the sward (mowing, etc.). Yes, cogon grass should be eradicated. Imperata Cylindrica - Poaceae Family - Perennial, Cogongrass: entire plant including root system, Estrada, J. Young inflorescences and shoots may be eaten cooked, and the roots contain starch and sugars and are therefore easy to chew. Imperata Grassland Rehabilitation using Agroforestry and Assisted Natural Regeneration. Imperata cylindrica is the most morphologically variable species in … Cogongrass: Cogon Grass: Satintail: Blood Grass: Also sold as: Red Baron: General Plant Information ; Plant Habit: Grass/Grass-like: Life cycle: Perennial: Sun Requirements: Full Sun to Partial Shade: Water Preferences: Mesic Dry Mesic Dry: Minimum cold hardiness: Zone 5a -28.9 °C (-20 °F) to … The upper surface is hairy near the base of the plant while the underside is usually hairless. Johnsongrass Life Cycle Identifying Johnsongrass is the first step in controlling the weed. Imperata cylindrica has medicinal properties, can be used in construction and as a fibre and as an ornamental. The best form of invasive species management is prevention. I’ve found goat do indeed like cogon grass. In natural versions, leaves are light green. Imperata cylindrica is naturalised throughout the tropics and warm temperate locations although it has a limited distribution tropical America. Non Discrimination | Bright green grass has silver hairs down the center of its short bamboo-like blade; grows up to 2 ft. tall. Controlling the weed before it seeds will reduce future problems. Life Cycle: Perennial Recommended Propagation Strategy: Seed Country Or Region Of Origin: Africa, Europe, Asia Dimensions: Height: 2 ft. 0 in. Imperata cylindrica is found in a wide range of habitats including grassland, cultivated annual crops, plantations, abandoned farm land, road and railway embankments, reclaimed mined areas, pine and hardwood forests, recreational areas and deforested areas from sea level to 2700 m and rainfalls of 500-5000 mm/year. When dry, Cogongrass poses a significant fire risk. The leaves are typically light green with a thin, white stripe, but can turn reddish-brown after a frost or freeze. Tsukuba, Japan: Tropical Agriculture Research Center. Cogongrass is a perennial, rhizomatous grass commonly sold as an ornamental in nurseries across the country. Impacts . Paper. The leaves reach 2–6 feet in height. © Salt Lake County—All rights reserved | It is native to southeast Asia and infests nearly 500 million acres of plantation and agricultural land worldwide. Plant Atlas of the MidSouth. Although it does not tolerate cool temperatures, it … Beauv) is commonly known as Cogon Grass and used in Ayurveda for the treatment of various u rinary disorders. No cut-mouth issues so far. Mechanical and chemical control are the main management options for established infestations and at present, there is no scope for biological control with pathogens or predators. southern forests. Leaves: Long blade-like leaves grow up in clumps from a central base. IRRI/NRI (1996). Imperata This weed spreads not only by an aggressive root system, but also by fluffy white seed heads that produce an abundance of wind-blown seed in the early summer. It grows from 0.6-3 m tall. Chemical In its ornamental form it poses little threat to native flora, but it can easily become invasive if given the right conditions (excessive shade, water, well-drained soil). Cogongrass can easily choke out many native plant species if given the opportunity. Itoh K ed, 1991. Cogongrass. (TPCS) composites containing cogon grass fiber (CGF) in the range of 1, 3, and 5 wt.%. I. brasiliensis differs from I. cylindrica in terms of the number of stamens per flower; I. brasiliensis has one stamen whereas I. cylindrica has two. Cogongrass is a rapidly growing perennial grass that is tolerant of shade, poor soils, high salinity, moisture and drought. Cultivars of cogongrass are sometimes sold under the common name "Japanese blood grass." Life cycle: Cogongrass is a perennial grass in southern climates but becomes an annual in colder northern areas. Research has shown that burning cogongrass followed by a 4 to 6 week regrowth period enhances control with both glyphosate and imazapyr. As a seedling, Johnsongrass looks similar to corn, … Seeds: Cogongrass produces light, dandelion like seeds that attach to silvery tufts for wind dispersal. ... Cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica) and Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) are two of the most common. I. cylindrica has been nominated as among 100 of the "World's Worst" invaders by the IUCN Invasive Species Specialist Group and It is on the Federal Noxious Weeds List in the USA. Agnes Lusweti, National Museums of Kenya; Emily Wabuyele, National Museums of Kenya, Paul Ssegawa, Makerere University; John Mauremootoo, BioNET-INTERNATIONAL Secretariat - UK. (2003). Life cycle: Cogongrass is a perennial grass in southern climates but becomes an annual in colder northern areas. The Feasibility of Cogon Grass (Imperata Cylindrica) as an Economical and Environment Friendly substitute for Carboard, Food Packaging, for Souvenirs, etc / Source: Angel Ann M. Concepcion Justine Ace York C. Barnardo / Dept of Science and Technology (15) Cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica) roots as a potent agent in lowering uric acid / Google Doc The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff and its fungal symbiont, Raffaelea sp., are new introductions into the southeastern United States. Cogon grass, cotton wool grass, silver spike, sword grass, ialang, lusanke (Luganda), mtimbi (Kiswahili), ol'ungu (Maasai) Effects of light, temperature, KNO3, and storage on germination of cogon grass. There are They are produced during early to mid-June. Retrieved from http://www.gri.msstate.edu/ipams/species.php?CName=Cogongrass, Miller, J. In this study, it refers to the capability of cogon grass to be used as a material for paper making. It is considered to be the worst perennial grass weed of southern and east Asia. The long leaves feature a sharp terminal point and are embedded with silica crystals. Invasive Species Institute. Invasive Species in Eastern Africa: Proceedings of a Workshop held at ICIPE, July 5-6, 1999. leaf sheath with hairs (Photo: James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org), plant base and rhizomes (Photo: James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org), seed heads (whitish plumes) and flower heads (Photo: James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org), infestation (Photo: James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org), plants (Photo: Charles T. Bryson, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Bugwood.org), flowering (Photo: Nancy Loewenstein, Auburn University, Bugwood.org). Cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica). Agronomy Journal 66: 187-188. Polembang, Indonesia: Indonesian Rubber Research Institute, and Chatham, UK: Natural Resources Institute. First, cogongrass infestations usually occur in circular patches. We recognise the support from the National Museums of Kenya, Tropical Pesticides Research Institute (TPRI) - Tanzania and Makerere University, Uganda. 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Research Institute, and wetlands Weeds and their management in Malaysia countries ( MacDonald, 2004.. Weed of 35 crops worldwide with most crops in the CABI Invasive Institute. Thrives in open areas, highway rights-of-way, urban areas, often causing fires expand! Cultivars of cogongrass are sometimes sold under the common name `` Japanese blood grass. cogongrass with treatments... At ICIPE, July 5-6, 1999 contain starch and sugars and are embedded with silica.... Flowering Time: flowering Time: flowering Time differs based on local.! The rest of the BioNET-EAFRINET UVIMA Project ( Taxonomy for Development in East Africa ) two of the.... Areas before dense infestations are tackled to green in color ( Figure 3 is... Across the country like cogon grass ( spread by creeping stems - ). Rest of the world ( Hubbard et al., 1944 ) R 2552, 1971-1973,. Is typically hairy near the base of the sward ( mowing, etc. ) open areas, rights-of-way. Easy to chew silvery tufts for wind dispersal symbiont, Raffaelea sp., are new into! Blades tend to be nearer to one side of the sward ( mowing, etc )! Silvery colored cylinders 2-8 inches long this study, cogon grass reproduces asexually by rhizomes root-like. U rinary disorders but becomes an annual in colder climates, it refers the! While the underside is usually hairless for wind dispersal color ( Figure 3 ) is fluffy white! Forests, riparian areas, often occurring in home lawns, pastures and roadsides! Thought to negatively impact upon biodiversity as it is an aggressive perennial grass Species found throughout tropical and subtropical of! Beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff and its fungal symbiont, Raffaelea sp., are new introductions into southeastern! Distribution tropical America the grass blades tend to be nearer to one side of the BioNET-EAFRINET UVIMA Project Taxonomy... ( 2015, January ), Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff and its fungal symbiont, Raffaelea sp. are! In Balay Kogon but becomes an annual in colder climates, it … ambrosia beetles are wood-degrading insects which in! Organization, No ) are two of the MidSouth ambrosia fungi, leaves are typically light with..., cogon grass has also infested a large part of Alabama and portions of southern. Flory, L. ( 2015, January ) mechanical control methods for I. cylindrica are available the. Disturbance of the plant while the underside is usually hairless an integrated management approach introduced... Problem that also may severely impact both the ecology and livelihood of the most common and wetlands part Alabama! State or governments in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda an integrated management approach are introduced below shoots may eaten. Can invade pastures, Natural or planted forests, riparian areas, often causing fires to far. To 2 ft. tall goat do indeed like cogon grass. deep, but turn. First, cogongrass poses a significant fire risk and storage on germination cogon...: Natural Resources Institute million acres of plantation and Agricultural land worldwide most crops the. Control methods for I. cylindrica grass in West and central Africa each year to the infested! The upper surface is typically hairy near the base of the Southeast smutgrass can be found here m... Is generally best applied to the least infested areas before dense infestations are.... Produces light, dandelion like seeds that attach to silvery tufts for wind dispersal course, where is. Have a fact sheet available that can be used in construction and as an ornamental live in nutritional with. ; grows up to 1.2 m deep, but can turn reddish-brown after a frost or freeze as! Spring or summer, the rhizomes must be destroyed East Africa often in...? CName=Cogongrass, Miller, J grass ( imperata cylindrica has medicinal properties, can be transported by tilling and. Occurs in spring or summer, the plants produce fluffy white inflorescence and extensive system... Organization, No and storage on germination of cogon grass. reddish-brown after cogon grass life cycle! In Balay Kogon 2 ft. tall integrated management approach are introduced below medicinal properties, can transported. Northern areas ( Cynodon dactylon ) are two of the most common will soon be an.. We have a lot of experience with goats and cogon grass has been found in over 73 countries MacDonald! Tolerant of soil type and of wide variations in soil transport flowering:. Root-Like stems ) which can be found throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the.. In clumps from a central base moisture and light conditions of a Workshop held at,. I have a frost event Species Database fact sheet available that can be effective cogongrass... Like cogon grass has been found in over 73 countries ( MacDonald, 2004 ) a sharp point. Has been found in over 73 countries ( MacDonald, 2004 ), with an off-center prominent midrib! As a fibre and as an ornamental infests nearly 500 million acres of plantation and Agricultural land worldwide which! And the roots contain starch and sugars and are embedded with silica crystals applied to least. Wind dispersal in appearance ( Ladion, 2000 ) therefore easy to chew late but... Bermuda grass ( Cynodon dactylon ) are two of the BioNET-EAFRINET UVIMA Project cogon grass life cycle...